CBD-What is it and how does it work?
CBD (cannabidiol) belongs to a group of compounds called cannabinoids, which naturally occur in both (fibrous) and Indian cannabis. In contrast to THC, CBD has no narcotic effect - on the contrary, it has a calming, anxiolytic and antipsychotic effect. CBD, along with THC, is one of the best-studied compounds from the cannabinoid group.
In recent years, scientists have made great progress in research into the complex action of CBD on the body:
- calming and anti-depressant
At the moment, we know that CBD interacts with many receptors, proteins and other chemical compounds in the brain. Thanks to these interactions, there are changes in the activity of neurotransmitters, hormones and the activity of the organism at the cellular level.
Through the above interactions, CBD has an impact on many of the functions of human oranism, starting with the circadian rhythm (sleep) and mental state, up to the regulation of inflammation, pain and seizures.
The human body itself produces cannabinoids as part of the so-called endocannabinoid system.
They are, for example, an amandamide and 2-AG. The endocannabinoid system is responsible for regulating many physiological processes in our body, including humor, pain perception, appetite and cognitive functions. CBD partly affects our endocannabinoid system by binding to its receptors.
According to the results of several studies, CBD may affect neurogenesis, or the process of creating new nerve cells in the brain. Currently, its anti-cokonic and anti-inflammatory effects are already widely known. All this makes CBD a compound that gives high hopes in the treatment of many diseases such as neurobiological diseases, autoimmune diseases, depression and in the treatment of chronic pain.
How does CBD work?
All cannabinoids, including CBD, work by "attaching" to the appropriate receptors to trigger the reaction. In the human body we distinguish for a moment two basic types of these receptors - CB1 and CB2. The third much less known receptor is TRPV1.
CB1 receptors, first detected in the brain, are also found in many other organs, in connective tissue and glands. The most important function of CB1 is the regulation of neurotransmitters in the brain. The level of substances such as serotonin or dopamine is stabilized by activating the CB1 receptor. CBD initiates the so-called allosteric response - it does not directly trigger a reaction in the body, but regulates the receptor's response to other endocannabinoids, it joins with its orthosteric side - the response is strengthened or weakened.
In contrast, CB2 receptors are mainly associated with the immune system - they can be found outside the brain, in such places as the intestine, spleen, liver, heart, kidneys, bone tissue, blood vessels, lymph cells, endocrine glands and reproductive glands. CBD itself and its activity are associated just with the binding of this substance to CB2 receptors, and thus have a general anti-inflammatory effect. Until now, CB2 receptors were thought to have no major impact on nerve cells or entire nerves.
Safety and side effects
Studies conducted so far on both humans and animals have shown that CBD is a safe compound for use, which also increases its therapeutic potential. CBD was also examined for side effects - no major effects were found except for the slowdown and nausea. Daily doses up to 1500 mg were well tolerated by humans. CBD does not cause narcotic effects in the case of humans and animals. CBD may interact with drugs. CBD is metabolized using the cytochromatic P450 enzymatic system. Therefore, it may affect the increase or decrease in blood levels of metabolites of drugs that are broken down in the liver.
Based on in vitro data, the effect of CBD inhibition of intestinal p-glycoprotein can not be ruled out. Therefore, caution is advised during concomitant treatment with digoxin and other medicinal products that are substrates for p-glycoprotein. Caution should be exercised when using medicinal products that are hypnotic, sedative and have a potential sedative effect, due to the possible additive effect on sedatives and to reduce muscle tone.